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Caltech to rename campus buildings that had honored backers of eugenics
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The California Institute of Technology announced Friday it will rename buildings and other campus assets that had honored several backers of the discredited eugenics movement, including one of its early leaders.

The prestigious institute’s action is the latest in series of similar steps that have occurred in recent years as higher education institutions take stock of their role in the nation’s history of social and racial injustice. ...
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Robert A. Millikan, who led Caltech from 1921 to 1945, joined the Human Betterment Foundation as a trustee in 1937, the report found. The committee also researched Millikan’s views on gender, race, and ethnicity, “finding them sexist, racist, xenophobic, and inexcusable by any standard,” Caltech said in a news release.

Caltech’s trustees decided to strip Millikan’s name from a library that is the tallest building on the campus in Pasadena.

Millikan was crucial in the rise of Caltech as a science powerhouse and was its first Nobel laureate. In 1923, he received the Nobel Prize in physics for his work “on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect.”

Caltech said it will also remove from its assets and honors the names of other prominent figures linked to eugenics advocacy: Harry Chandler, Ezra S. Gosney, William B. Munro, Henry M. Robinson and Albert B. Ruddock.
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William Shockley
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William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. He was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The three scientists were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for "their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".

Partly as a result of Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s, California's "Silicon Valley" became a hotbed of electronics innovation. In his later life, while a professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University, Shockley became a proponent of racism and eugenics. A 2019 study in the journal Intelligence found him to be the second-most controversial (behind Arthur Jensen) intelligence researcher among 55 persons covered.
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Top Ten Unlikely and Surprising Eugenicists
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...
Marie Stopes – the family-planning pioneer. ...
H.G. Wells – writer ...
Helen Keller – deaf and blind author, activist and lecturer ...
George Bernard Shaw – playwright and author ...
Winston Churchill – politician and wartime prime-minister ...
William Beveridge – Economist and social reformer ...
Theodore Roosevelt – 26th president of the United States ...
Jacques Cousteau – sub-mariner and explorer ...
John Maynard Keynes – Economist ...
Bertrand Russell – Philosopher ...
...



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21 Historical Figures You Didn’t Know Supported The Eugenics Movement
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Alexander Graham Bell ...
Margaret Sanger ...
W. E. B. Du Bois ...
Clarence Darrow ...
Oliver Wendell Holmes ...
John Harvey Kellogg ...
Plato ...
Alice Lee Moqué ...
Sidney Webb ...
Francis Crick ...
Robert Foster Kennedy ...
Thomas Malthus ...
Herbert Hoover ...
Linus Pauling ...
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What is immoral about eugenics?
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It is a “given” in discussions of genetic engineering that no sensible person can be in favour of eugenics. The main reason for this presumption is that so much horror, misery, and mayhem have been carried out in the name of eugenics in the 20th century that no person with any moral sense could think otherwise. In fact, the abysmal history of murder and sterilisation undertaken in the name of race hygiene and the “improvement” of the human species again and again in this century is so overpowering that the risk of reoccurrence, sliding down what has proved time and time again to be an extremely slick, slippery slope, does seem enough to bring all ethical argument in favour of eugenics to an end.

However, before dismissing any favourable stance towards eugenics it is important to distinguish what has happened in the past under the banner of eugenics and what might happen in the future. ...
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Summary points

* The horrible abuses committed in the name of eugenics through coercive policies imposed by governments have obscured the fact that eugenic goals can be the subject of choice as well as coercion

* In the rush to map the human genome and reap the benefits of new genetic knowledge it has become commonplace to argue that eugenic goals will play no part in how new genetic knowledge is used

* The moral case against voluntary choices to advance eugenic goals by individuals or couples has not been persuasively made

* Given the power and authority granted to parents to seek to improve or better their children by environmental interventions, at least some forms of genetic selection or alteration seem equally ethically defensible if they are undertaken freely and do not disempower or disadvantage children
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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Eugenics
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“Eugenics” is a term loaded with historical significance and a strong negative valence. Its literal meaning—good birth—suggests a suitable goal for all prospective parents, yet its historical connotations tie it to the selective breeding programs, horrifying concentration camps, medical experiments, and mass exterminations promoted by Germany's Nazi regime in World War II. Undoubtedly, we have an obligation never to forget the Holocaust, or to allow history to repeat itself. Yet intuitively we have some moral obligation to promote good births—to have, in the most literal sense, eugenic aims. Indeed, if parents are encouraged to provide the best environment for their children (good nutrition, education, health care, a loving family situation, etc.), why not also encourage them to ensure their children have good genes? If we have some moral obligation to secure the well-being of our future children (a question explored extensively in the literature on the non-identity problem; see the entry on the nonidentity problem), different questions come into focus: how far do such obligations extend, what justifies them, and can related contemporary practices be distinguished, in their aims, forms, justifications, and likely consequences, from the clearly morally impermissible eugenic programs of the past?
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So what's the point? Or what's my point?
Few things are purely good or bad, black or white.
Some abhor Richard Wagner for his antisemitic views, while others revere him for his musical ingenuity.


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Eugenics is essential if we are to survive as a human race, and is well and truly on the way back at this very moment.

Before anyone jumps in, let me assure you I am not looking for more Holocausts.

Nothing like that at all.

The time is fast approaching when, in the West at least, only those adults properly qualified will be permitted to have children.

This is not a matter of killing off defective babies.

Instead, it is to ensure defective babies are not conceived.

There is hardly one animal or plant used for human consumption which is not subject to eugenics.

I imagine we all know the top prices paid for stud sires and dams in horse racing, the prices paid for the top stud bulls in the meat industry.

We need to stop kidding ourselves and accept we are just one more animal which must protect itself in the best ways possible.

Our population has more than doubled in the past century, and if that keeps up we will not survive as a species.

Check the facts and graph here. January has a long way to go yet, and we have already added one-tenth of the US population. The death rate is less than half the birth rate:

https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/

All we need do is closely examine the results of human pollution in our world. Anyone seen the latest on our oceans?

The one extremely dangerous impact of this is who will be permitted to make the new rules?


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...Though cowards flinch and traitors sneer We'll keep the red flag flying here
 
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New Yorker: The Forgotten Lessons of the American Eugenics Movement
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... What is hardest to forget about “Imbeciles” is the stream of grandiose invective against the supposedly unfit—the diatribes concerning “germs of dependency and delinquency” and the “world peopled by a race of degenerates and defectives.” It’s a language that combines the detachment of scientific terminology with the heat of bigoted slurs. It’s clearly from another time, but, lacking any lip service to equality and opportunity and the other touchstones of American political rhetoric, it also seems to come from another country. This is not how we talk about ourselves. And yet there are passages that sound startlingly familiar. In the debate over the Immigration Act of 1924, which excluded eugenically undesirable races from the U.S., a senator from Alabama declared, “We are coming to a pitiful pass in this great country when it is unpopular to speak the English language, the American language”—a lament that might have been taken from yesterday’s paper, except that he was bemoaning the proliferation of Yiddish.

It’s impossible, especially, to read “Imbeciles” without thinking of the current election cycle. Although the concerns of the eugenics movement don’t map neatly onto today’s political divides, patterns of thought are repeated: fears of procreation and infiltration still have force, although they’re directed not at “hopelessly vicious protoplasm” but at “anchor babies”; instead of the pure blood of the Nordic races, we hear invocations of that other superior species, the Winners. The 2016 Presidential campaign has reverberated with appeals to strength and victory and virility and contempt for weakness and failure and foreigners, hitting notes of blatant ugliness that we’re not used to hearing in the public sphere. The response in some quarters has been bafflement, as though this way of speaking had materialized out of nowhere. But perhaps it shouldn’t be so surprising. As Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote to a friend, about his pleasure in writing the Buck decision, “Sooner or later one gets a chance to say what one thinks.”



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I think anyone who wants to grapple with the issues of eugenics should live in a neighborhood with a Caltech Nobel laureate on one side, a Black Lives Matter historian on the other, a Mumbai untouchable across the street and Elie Wiesel’s grandchildren in the back.

I wouldn’t pay any attention at all to someone who is unfamiliar with Robert Millikan or William Shockley.


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What is hardest to forget about “Imbeciles” is the stream of grandiose invective against the supposedly unfit—the diatribes concerning “germs of dependency and delinquency” and the “world peopled by a race of degenerates and defectives.” It’s a language that combines the detachment of scientific terminology with the heat of bigoted slurs.

No need to place such enormous emphasis on "imbeciles".

While it is essential to beware, most can be dealt with by a properly designed education program which addresses their cultural indoctrination.


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The people's flag is deepest red It shrouded oft our martyred dead
...Though cowards flinch and traitors sneer We'll keep the red flag flying here
 
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I wouldn’t pay any attention at all to someone who is unfamiliar with Robert Millikan or William Shockley.

There is an infinitely greater, often wiser, world outside the narrow borders of so many.

Takes a fair bit of effort and willingness to learn before one can absorb what is available.

It is all on the Internet for those who know what questions to ask.


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The people's flag is deepest red It shrouded oft our martyred dead
...Though cowards flinch and traitors sneer We'll keep the red flag flying here
 
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Originally posted by purplepentode:
I think anyone who wants to grapple with the issues of eugenics should live in a neighborhood with a Caltech Nobel laureate on one side, a Black Lives Matter historian on the other, a Mumbai untouchable across the street and Elie Wiesel’s grandchildren in the back.

I wouldn’t pay any attention at all to someone who is unfamiliar with Robert Millikan or William Shockley.

Thank god we're about to rid ourselves of a President who would have no idea what you're talking about here, and who certainly wouldn't recognize either the eloquence or the humanity of your words.


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Originally posted by Lynn Dee:
Thank god we're about to rid ourselves of the President who would have no idea what you're talking about here, and who certainly wouldn't recognize either the eloquence or the humanity of your words.

Thanks LD for your kind words.

I would simply add that anyone who disagrees with me is plainly an imbecile and deserves to have his or her gonads removed and eaten accompanied with crisp asparagus, black butter and dry white wine.


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I would simply add that anyone who disagrees with me is plainly an imbecile and deserves to have his or her gonads removed and eaten accompanied with crisp asparagus, black butter and dry white wine.

Fortunately that can not be directed at me, since all I have done is address the topic with knowledge which does not seem to exist elsewhere here.

As I said, this has been addressed in detail by a number of sources, including at least one based in the US, though they did have to go to Mexico to avoid legal issues.

I said earlier, we are entering a whole new era where some children will have more than two genetic "parents".

Seems an ideal way to rid ourselves of genetic diseases.

https://www.newscientist.com/a...-3-parent-technique/


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The people's flag is deepest red It shrouded oft our martyred dead
...Though cowards flinch and traitors sneer We'll keep the red flag flying here
 
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Originally posted by purplepentode:
I would simply add that anyone who disagrees with me is plainly an imbecile and deserves to have his or her gonads removed and eaten accompanied with crisp asparagus, black butter and dry white wine.

That imagery and the subject can't help but bring to mind Paul Celan's powerful poem Todesfuge (Death Fugue), which I'll post here:
quote:
Black milk of daybreak we drink it at evening
we drink it at midday and morning we drink it at night
we drink and we drink
we shovel a grave in the air there you won't lie too cramped
A man lives in the house he plays with his vipers he writes
he writes when it grows dark to Deutschland your golden hair Marguerite
he writes it and steps out of doors and the stars are all sparkling
he whistles his hounds to come close
he whistles his Jews into rows has them shovel a grave in the ground
he orders us strike up and play for the dance
Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night
we drink you at morning and midday we drink you at evening
we drink and we drink
A man lives in the house he plays with his vipers he writes
he writes when it grows dark to Deutschland your golden hair Margeurite
your ashen hair Shulamith we shovel a grave in the air there you won't lie too cramped
He shouts jab this earth deeper you lot there you others sing up and play
he grabs for the rod in his belt he swings it his eyes are blue
jab your spades deeper you lot there you others play on for the dancing

Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night
we drink you at midday and morning we drink you at evening
we drink and we drink
a man lives in the house your goldenes Haar Margeurite
your aschenes Haar Shulamith he plays with his vipers
He shouts play death more sweetly Death is a master from Deutschland
he shouts scrape your strings darker you'll rise then in smoke to the sky
you'll have a grave then in the clouds there you won't lie too cramped
Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night
we drink you at midday Death is a master aus Deutschland
we drink you at evening and morning we drink and we drink
this Death is ein Meister aus Deutschland his eye it is blue
he shoots you with shot made of lead shoots you level and true
a man lives in the house your goldenes Haar Margarete
he looses his hounds on us grants us a grave in the air
he plays with his vipers and daydreams
der Tod is ein Meister aus Deutschland
dein goldenes Haar Margarete
dein aschenes Haar Shulamith


That really ought to put an end to any talk of eugenics but I suppose it won't, especially when couched in the soothing language of "discouraging birth."


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Zach Floyd: "I want Trump to start claiming things like he's eaten 1,000 bees in his life so we can see Scott Walker try to eat a bunch of bees." Plus: And Jeb! take the bold stand of announcing he will not be eating any bees.
 
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That really ought to put an end to any talk of eugenics but I suppose it won't, especially when couched in the soothing murmurs of "discouraging birth."

Given the extent of scientific endeavour to address the real issues we H. sapiens sapiens Great Apes face, genetic engineering is entering a whole new era.

Of course, any adult who has used any form of contraception has to agree.

If they do not, they are exposing themselves as blatant hypocrites.


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Instead, it is to ensure defective babies are not conceived.



There is much debate over what constitutes a defective baby! And, there is much to be learned from the many that are disabled in some way.

I just read an article about how difficult the blind, with guide dog, are having navigating the distant separations. The distance between peo is understandable but I hadn’t considered that public transportation has signs that you cannot sit in a particular seat. Guide dogs can’t read, and it appears others have been emboldened to just be rude, rather than help! Even taking something off the shelf is wrought with people complaining you are too close!

But I digressed, it turns out Down syndrome adults can make excellent Xerox operators and you’re more likely to have a document correctly collated and without missing pages if there was a paper jam. Others can do electronic assembly tasks that would drive most of us nuts! But mostly, I’ve seen them teach unqualified acceptance of others!

Those with missing limbs etc have helped our war wounded learn to do things they’ve never done any other way. And some have extreme intelligence, could we afford to lose those? A savant can teach us that there is more than intelligence in the scheme of things.

While I might agree that population control is valuable, and certainly good parenting a necessity I’m not sure we can determine what a defect is that might just be what we need to survive. Sickle Cell is just one disease that is saving some.

Addendum

Birth control limits the number not necessarily the quality of children, unless one has chosen it solely because of a genetic defect.
 
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U.S. Scientists' Role in the Eugenics Movement (1907–1939): A Contemporary Biologist's Perspective
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In this special issue devoted to the study of pigmentation, it is only fitting that we reflect on how this trait has been utilized to promote specific political and social agendas in both the United States and Europe. It was Francis Galton, a cousin of Darwin, who coined the term “eugenics” in 1883 while advocating that society should promote the marriage of what he felt were the fittest individuals by providing monetary incentives.1 Shortly thereafter, many intellectuals and political leaders (e.g., Alexander Graham Bell, Winston Churchill, John Maynard Keynes, and Woodrow Wilson) accepted the notion that modern societies, as a matter of policy, should promote the improvement of the human race through various forms of governmental intervention. While initially this desire was manifested as the promotion of selective breeding, it ultimately contributed to the intellectual underpinnings of state-sponsored discrimination, forced sterilization, and genocide.

From the perspective of an academic in 2008, it can be hard to fathom how pioneering studies of chromosomal segregation would be juxtaposed to studies of “Pedigrees of Pauper Stocks” in England, “Individual and Racial Inheritance of Musical Traits” or “Heritable Factors in Human Fitness and Their Social Control.” These examples come from the 1923 report of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, titled Eugenics, Genetics, and the Family.2 In the opening address, Henry F. Osborn, then president of the American Museum of Natural History in New York (the site of the meeting), stated,

“In the US we are slowly waking to the consciousness that education and environment do not fundamentally alter racial values. We are engaged in a serious struggle to maintain our historic republican institutions through barring the entrance of those unfit to share in the duties and responsibilities of our well-founded government. … In the matter of racial virtues, my opinion is that from biological principles there is little promise in the melting-pot theory. Put three races together (Caucasian, Mongolian, and the Negroid) you are likely to unite the vices of all three as the virtues. … For the worlds work give me a pure-blooded … ascertain through observation and experiment what each race is best fitted to accomplish. … If the Negro fails in government, he may become a fine agriculturist or a fine mechanic. … The right of the state to safeguard the character and integrity of the race or races on which its future depends is, to my mind, as incontestable as the right of the state to safeguard the health and morals of its peoples.”
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LA Times: Confronting a racist past, Caltech will excise names of eugenics backers from campus
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Having traveled the difficult road of coming to terms with racism in its own past, Caltech on Friday said it would remove the names of Robert A. Millikan and five other important figures in its history from campus.

The reason is their association with the Human Betterment Foundation, a major promoter of the discredited science of eugenics and of programs to forcibly sterilize those whom eugenicists labeled “feeble-minded” or “unfit.”

The move amounts to a major reckoning with the university’s history. That’s especially true as it applies to Millikan, who has traditionally been more closely identified with Caltech’s emergence as a leading scientific institution than any other individual.
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During his reign at Caltech, from 1921 to 1945, Millikan was one of the best known and most respected scientists in the country. Simultaneously, he was helping to steer the Human Betterment Foundation, which tarnishes a legacy that extends well beyond Caltech — Millikan’s name adorns streets and public schools across the Southland.
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The process of historical reconsideration was plainly a wrenching one for Caltech, and not without its missteps. In September, Sarah Sam, the only Black student on the renaming committee, abruptly resigned from the panel.

Sam issued a broadside in which she asserted that “the membership of this committee neither has the background nor is willing to address institutional racism at Caltech.” She suggested that some committee members seemed intent on minimizing the impact of eugenics and the Human Betterment Foundation on the victims of sterilization.
...
“The committee was unequivocal in its condemnation of eugenics,” Nicolás Wey Gómez, a Caltech history professor and committee member, told me. “It is dehumanizing, it is wrong. Central to moving forward as an institution, we on the committee felt a deep sense of obligation to renounce any part of our past that is inconsistent with the Caltech of today.”

The committee’s report considered and bluntly rejected the defense that eugenics was an accepted scientific pursuit in Millikan’s time.

“Millikan’s stances on gender, race, and ethnicity may have been more common in his time, and even the norm for his socioeconomic status,” the report says. “But it would fly in the face of historical truth to excuse sexism, racism, and xenophobia as inevitable and universal in Millikan’s time.”

In any case, by the time Millikan joined the Human Betterment Foundation as a trustee in 1937, “eugenics and its claims for the hereditary nature of human behavior and character had fallen into disrepute,” the report states. It was Millikan’s responsibility “to exercise the scientific due diligence of determining whether the HBF had its science right, which it did not.”

The HBF’s views and policies were further tainted by class distinctions. Eugenicists tried to give objective labels to their targets — “feeble-minded” and “unfit.” But in reality, the report noted, “the predominant victims of these policies” were ethnic and racial minorities and those labeled “white trash.”

“What made members of all these groups the object of eugenic attention,” the report observed, “was that they were likely un- or ill-educated and at the lower end of income distribution.”
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Nature: Is modern genetics the new eugenics?
quote:

... In 1990, in a book describing his view of human genetics, Berkeley sociologist Troy Duster spoke about a back door to eugenics, one that is made up of “screens, treatments, and therapies,”3 and a few years later, Arthur Dyck, a professor of ethics at Harvard, wrote the following: Science, medicine and law at present willingly provide the information, rationale, and technical know-how for current eugenic practices in the United States, some of them quite coercive and arguably unethical… Eugenics is not simply a matter of history. Eugenics is practiced today… [and] the very ideas and concepts that informed and motivated German physicians and the Nazi state are in place. 4

Dyck and Duster were not alone in telling us that eugenics is actively being pursued in the practice of human and medical genetics. For example, Dorothy Wertz said it outright: “Eugenics is alive and well.”5 The basis for her assertion is that, whereas only some geneticists regard what they are doing as being eugenics, counseling for prenatal diagnosis is “pessimistically biased” or “slanted” and counselors have a “pessimistic view of persons with disabilities,”—perhaps not so much in the English-speaking countries, but certainly in the rest of the world. Similarly, Science, in reporting a survey on cloning, tells us that “eugenics is gaining broader acceptance overall,” in this instance equating eugenics with prenatal diagnosis for desirable traits and the use of genetic engineering to produce these traits. 6 And, in a comment cited in an article reporting that the governor of Virginia recently apologized for Virginia's 1924 law authorizing involuntary sterilization for eugenic purposes, Barbara Bieseker is quoted to the effect that prenatal diagnosis may be operating in a “milieu of personal eugenics.”7

The worst accusation that can be leveled against modern human genetics and medical genetics is that they are eugenic—if not a literal return to the eugenics of the past, at least a reincarnation of that eugenics in a new guise. The mere use of the word “eugenics” brings forth very visceral responses. Richard Dawkins, of The Selfish Gene fame, tells us that, “If cannibalism is our greatest taboo, positive eugenics… is a candidate for the second… In our time, the word [eugenics] has a chilling ring. If a policy is described as ‘eugenic,’ that is enough for most people to rule it out at once….”8 And, according to Diane Paul, “the term is wielded like a club. To label a policy ‘eugenics’ is to say, in effect, that it is not just bad but beyond the pale.”9
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I suppose people who are convinced they are still living in the Cold War and thus fear Russia (along with any form of Socialism) would find it near-impossible to check what is happening today rather than relying entirely on what happened long ago in an entirely different world culture.

The One World Order is on its way.


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The people's flag is deepest red It shrouded oft our martyred dead
...Though cowards flinch and traitors sneer We'll keep the red flag flying here
 
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Nobel Prize-Winning Caltech Professor Named to President-Elect Joe Biden’s Science Team
quote:

A Caltech professor and the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been selected to serve as part of President-Elect Joe Biden’s White House Science Team, the transition team announced Friday.

Caltech’s Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry and Director of the Rosen Bioengineering Center Frances H. Arnold will serve as co-chair of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, along with Maria Zuber of MIT, according to a statement issued by the transition team. “They are the first women to serve as co-chairs of PCAST.”

They join a team of a half-dozen scientists from across the country, who are to be led by Office of Science and Technology Policy Director and Presidential Science Advisor nominee Eric Lander, according to the statement. The position of presidential science advisor is being upgraded to a Cabinet position for the first time.
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“Science will always be at the forefront of my administration — and these world-renowned scientists will ensure everything we do is grounded in science, facts, and the truth,” [Biden] said. “Their trusted guidance will be essential as we come together to end this pandemic, bring our economy back, and pursue new breakthroughs to improve the quality of life of all Americans. Their insights will help America chart a brighter future, and I am grateful they answered the call to serve.”
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What's a purple pentode? Why, it's one that's gassy!
 
Posts: 15001 | Location: USA | Mbr Since: 10-07-2005Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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purplepentode, could you please do me a great favour and tell me what you think Dawkins is saying?

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Richard Dawkins, of The Selfish Gene fame, tells us that, “If cannibalism is our greatest taboo, positive eugenics… is a candidate for the second… In our time, the word [eugenics] has a chilling ring. If a policy is described as ‘eugenic,’ that is enough for most people to rule it out at once….”8


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The people's flag is deepest red It shrouded oft our martyred dead
...Though cowards flinch and traitors sneer We'll keep the red flag flying here
 
Posts: 4143 | Location: Queensland, Australia | Mbr Since: 05-05-2017Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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Joe Biden names top geneticist Eric Lander as science adviser
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... Lander was a key leader of the Human Genome Project — the race to sequence the human genome, which ended in 2003 — and is president and founding director of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He will be the first biologist to run OSTP.

Between 2009 and 2017, he also co-chaired the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), an elite panel that advises the US president. Among the PCAST reports issued during Lander’s tenure were some dealing with pandemics, vaccination, energy and climate change.

"This is a marvelous appointment, it’s great to see a life scientist running the OSTP,” says Varmus, who co-chaired PCAST with Lander.

When Biden named Lander to his team on 15 January, he also announced a number of other respected scientists to key positions in his administration. “Science will always be at the forefront of my administration — and these world-renowned scientists will ensure everything we do is grounded in science, facts, and the truth,” Biden said in a statement.

Caltech bioengineer and Nobel laureate Frances Arnold and MIT geophysicist Maria Zuber will co-chair PCAST under Biden. Alondra Nelson, nominated to be deputy director for science and society at OSTP, is a social scientist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, who studies genetics, race and other societal issues.
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What's a purple pentode? Why, it's one that's gassy!
 
Posts: 15001 | Location: USA | Mbr Since: 10-07-2005Reply With QuoteReport This Post
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